Welcome to RIFCON's Avian Focal Species Finder!

By selecting the relevant crop and zone you will find the respective focal species that should be considered to be appropriate according to the respective reference (all data used is listed below).

Each of the search results comprises the focal species, the respective BBCH growth stage and the corresponding reference from which the information was obtained.

To start a new search either change the selection in the dropdown list or select "Clear filters" to reset the lists before making a new choice.

We are looking forward to any comment and advice which data/literature might be missing or which could be useful to be added.

Dietzen C, Edwards PJ, Wolf C, Ludwigs JD, Luttik R. 2014. Focal species of birds in european crops for higher tier pesticide risk assessment. IEAM 10 (2): 247-259


Reference list

  1. Anon. 2006. SC11418 - Checklist of issues to note when carrying out a bird and mammal risk assessment according to SANCO 4145/2002/EEC – Version 2.
  2. Auteri D. Ballerio A, Fanelli R, Gagliardi A, Mangiarotti M, Verin AR. 2006. Italian scenarios for pesticide risk assessment on birds. SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, Den Haag, The Netherlands.
  3. Cahier Agriculture et Oiseaux. 2012. Document guide permettant d'identifier les espèces focales d'oiseaux en France pour les grandes cultures, l'arboriculture, la vigne et les cultures légumières. Avril 2012.
  4. Dietzen C, Edwards PJ, Wolf C, Ludwigs JD, Luttik R. 2014. Focal species of birds in european crops for higher tier pesticide risk assessment. IEAM 10 (2): 247-259
  5. Foudoulakis M, Tzakos D, Kostouros N, Kaniastas E. 2011. Hellenic scenarios for bird focal species: the case of the cotton fields. SETAC Europe 21st Annual Meeting, Milan, Italy.
  6. Foudoulakis M. 2012. Farmland bird communities vs crop specific focal species in a Mediterranean landscape: The case of arable crops in Hellas. 5th SETAC World Congress, Berlin, Germany.
  7. Gandolfi M, Reichlin TS. 2012. List of potential focal bird species for a refined risk assessment of pesticides in Switzerland. 5th SETAC World Congress, Berlin, Germany.
  8. Hage M, Bakken V, Isaksen K. 2011?. Farmland birds in Southeast Norway. Risk Assessment of agricultural pesticides - recommendations for focal species in seven crops. Report to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.
  9. National Requirements for PPPs for Greece. 2012. http://www.minagric.gr/images/stories/docs/agrotis/Georgika_Farmaka/Egriseis/national_requirements_for_PPP.pdf
  10. Northern Zone: Pesticide Risk Assessment for Birds and Mammals. Selection of relevant species and development of standard scenarios for higher tier risk assessment in the Nothern Zone in accordance with Regulation EC 1107/2009. Version 1.1 of 24 January 2014.
  11. Randall M. 2010. Selection of focal species of birds for crops treated with pesticides in Norway. Fresenius Ecotox Conference, December 2, 2010
  12. Sabo R, Legath J, Sabova L. 2010. Focal bird species for refined exposure assessment in accordance with the Guidance document (EFSA) under Directive 91/414/EEC. Published by: National Reference Laboratory for pesticides; The University of Veterinary Medicine and Phamacy in Kosice, Slovakia. ISBN: 978-80-8077-200-0.
  13. Vallon M, Dietzen C, Laucht S, Ludwigs, J-D. 2018. Focal species candidates for pesticide risk assessment in European rice fields: a review. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 2018 Apr 25 [Epub ahead of print]
  14. Wassenberg J, Zorn M. 2012. Focal species and their ecological behaviour in pesticide risk assessment in the Netherlands. 5th SETAC World Congress, Berlin, Germany.